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LP3 R2: Information sheet: Seasons on different planets in the Solar System

All the planets in the Solar System have seasons, but on each planet seasons are different from those we know here on Earth.

The weather during each season is determined by a combination of factors:

  1. How close the planet is to the Sun
  2. The tilt of the planet’s axis
  3. Whether the planet’s orbit is nearly round (so that the planet is always about the same distance from the Sun) or elongated (so that sometimes the planet is closer to the Sun, sometimes further away)
  4. How thick is the planet’s atmosphere


Mercury, Venus and Jupiter all spin nearly straight, so technically they lack seasons. The tilt of Mars, Saturn and Neptune is very similar to the tilt of the Earth’s axis, so those planets have 4 different easy to tell apart seasons. Uranus is the most peculiar planets – it rolls on the side!


Let’s look at each planet in more detail:


Mercury has the smallest tilt in the Solar System of 1/30 degree, but due to its very elliptical orbit the distance from the Sun varies significantly throughout the year. So it does have what we could call “winter” and “summer”. Mercury has no atmosphere to preserve the heat during the night and the day-to-night variations of temperature on this planet are the most extreme in the Solar System: from +427 C during the day to -173 C at night.


Venus has a tilt of 3 degrees, it spins nearly straight, but the direction of the spin is the opposite from all the other planets (apart from Uranus). We could say that Venus spins upside down and the angle of the tilt is 180-3=177 degrees.

The weather on Venus is always the same – no seasonal variations, no even day-to night changes. Venus has a thick atmosphere made of carbon dioxide that prevents the planet from cooling down at night.

The temperature on Venus is 460 C.

The axis of Mars is tilted a bit more than the Earth’s, at an angle of 25 degrees.

Mars have more elongated orbit and is further away from the Sun. That means that Mars has seasons, but they last different time in different hemispheres!   

For example, in the Northern Hemisphere Spring lasts 7 month, Summer – 6 months, Autumn – 6 months and Winter – 4 months. Mars is much further away from the Sun than Earth, so the planet is much colder, except maybe on the poles in summer day, where the temperature can go up to +20 C. But even there it will drop to -90 when the night comes. The average temperature is about -55 C.


Jupiter’s axis is tilted at an angle of 3 degrees (just like Venus), so the seasons are almost impossible to tell apart. Technically each season lasts 3 years. Being so far away from the Sun, the planet does not get much heat from the star, most of the heat comes from within the planet itself! The average temperature on Jupiter is -145 C.


Saturn’s tilt is slightly bigger than the Earth’s, about 27 degrees. Each season lasts for about 7 years. Planet’s average temperature is -178 C.


The orbit of Uranus is nearly circular, but it is tilted at an angle of 98 degrees to the orbital plane. It rolls on the side! So each hemisphere is not just tilted but pointed towards or away from the Sun. For quarter of the orbit one pole is fully exposed to the Sun, while another pole is in the total darkness. Each season on Uranus lasts for 21 years.

Neptune is tilted at an angle of 28.5 degrees, similar to the Earth, experiencing the four seasons, each lasting about 40 years. But because it is so far away from the Sun, the difference between winter temperature and summer temperature are insignificant. An average temperature on Neptune is -214 C.

LP4: Small bodies of the Solar System

Lesson 4:

Small bodies of the Solar System: Asteroids, comets and meteoroids.



  1. To learn about asteroids: their characteristics, origin, location.
  2. To learn about comets: their characteristics, origin, location. To learn about Rosetta spacecraft and its study of a comet 67P/ Churyumov- Gerasimenko. To make a model of a comet.
  3. To learn about meteoroids. To learn the difference between meteoroids, meteors and meteorites.     


Age group: this lesson can be adapted to suit a wide age group from Y4 to Y8.

Time:  varies from 1 hour to 1 day

  • “Space lesson”: about 60 minutes. Use only the information sheets and related activities, leave out the movie and the demonstration.  
  • “Space morning”: the whole lesson with all activities and demonstration will take about 3 hours.
  • “Space day”: use lesson 4 in the morning and lesson 5 (dwarf planets) in the afternoon


  1. Information sheet 1: Asteroids
  2. Information sheet 2: Comets
  3. Information sheet 3: Meteoroids
  4. Rosetta mission cartoon (28 minutes long)
  5. How to make a comet” video tutorial by NASA
  6. How to make a comet: list of ingredients (see Appendix on page 4)
  7. Solar System (with belts) image
  8. Images of asteroids Ceres and Vesta
  9. Images of comets Halley and 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  10. Asteroids vs. Meteoroids image



In this lesson, the children think about what else there is in the Solar System apart from the Sun, eight planets and their moons, divided into two groups they learn about asteroids and comets and then present the information to the rest of the class, the children watch a cartoon about the spacecraft called Rosetta and its historical journey to comet 67P/ Churyumov- Gerasimenko, they learn what ingredients the comet is made of and watch the teacher make model of a comet using these ingredients, the children learn about meteoroids, then they do a quiz about asteroids, comets and meteoroids and finish the lesson writing a space dictionary.   


Tell the children, that the Solar System is made of the Sun, eight planets and their moons.

Ask the children if there are any other objects in the Solar System. Write down their suggestions on the whiteboard. Discuss them with the class and cross off any incorrect ones.

Summarize, that there are lots of other objects and that they can be divided into two groups: in the first group would be dwarf planets- objects that are big and heavy enough to become round. In the second group would be asteroids, comets a meteoroids – small and funny shaped objects.

Tell the children, that you will be learning about dwarf plants on the next lesson and that the focus of today’s lesson would be the second group.

  1. Divide the class into two groups and give each group an information sheet (1) or (2) to study. One group will be learning about asteroids, another about comets. Make a few books about space available for the children to look at if they need any additional information. Each group’s task will be to read the information and to present it to the rest of the class. The group should decide how to present their topic: whether they will choose one presenter, several, or everybody will take part, will they be doing posters or any other visual resources etc. Allow up to 30 minutes to prepare the presentation.
  2. Support the presentations by showing the picture of the Solar System with belts (7), pictures of asteroids (8) and comets (9).
  3. Discuss with the children what they have just learned.
  4. Show movie (4) to the class. Bear in mind, the movie is 28 minutes long!
  5. Make a model of the comet using tutorial (5). Keep the list of ingredients (6) displayed (projected or written on the whiteboard) during the demonstration.
  6. Put the comet on a display for the children to watch. It will slowly sublimate (sublimate means turn from solid state to gas skipping the liquid state).
  7. Ask the children to give comet a name (traditionally, comets we named after their discoverers or people who studied them or the year they were observed, these days we discover so many comets that the names we give them are special codes that tell the type of orbit comet has and when it was discovered)
  8. Tell the children, that if a small piece of asteroid or a comet gets chipped off, it continues its journey through the Solar System as a meteoroid.
  9. Tell the children about meteoroids using the information sheet (3) and image (10).
  10. Give the children a quiz about asteroids, comets and meteoroids.
  11. Make you class’s “Space Dictionary”:
  • Ask the children to think about new the concepts they’ve learned today (such as asteroid, Asteroid Belt, comet, nucleus, coma, Kuiper Belt, meteoroid, meteor, meteorite, Astronomical Unit etc). Write them down.
  • Ask the children to define each concept (if there are several good definitions, the class can vote for the best one)
  • Give each child (or a group of children) one task such as: to write down definition, to draw an illustration, to make a front page etc (don’t forget to leave a few empty pages so that you could add up to the dictionary later)


End of the lesson!




How to make a comet: list of ingredients

(Instructions from the video)


1 liter water (comets have lots of water)

2 cups dirt (minerals, water and dust)

1 Tbsp starch (optional to hold our comet together)

1 Tbsp syrup (for organic)

1 Tbsp vinegar (for amino acids)

1 Tbsp rubbing Alcohol (for methanol)


5 lb dry ice crushed into tiny bits


LP4 R1: Meteoroid facts

Free Lesson Plans about Space with our Mobile Planetarium visit


Free Lesson Plans for teachers who are looking for additional resources to complement our inflatable planetarium. We have developed lesson plans to cater for a range of year groups/ages. For example, Moon Of The Solar System provides an is a suitable resource to follow up our mobile planetarium visit where Y 4,5 or 6 learners were introduced to the solar system. The resource offers ideas for developing a further in-depth understanding of the Moon as a celestial object and its relation to Earth. For the younger audience lesson plan Planets allows embedding the knowledge gained in our presenter-led space mobile planetarium session.

To enhance space relate topic before or after mobile planetarium visit you can also look through a compilation list of web-pages where more resources can be found. BBC Education offers space knowledge material relevant to the British school curriculum. Other websites, such as for example Principia and UK Space Agency contain a number of visual resources and a more even specific information. Aside from incredible visual resources, NASA’s official website contains some great education resources, many of which are printable.  If you want your learners to know about the Russian space news ROSCOSMOS website offers information to expand the knowledge gained during our presenter-led mobile planetarium sessions.

Useful Space Websites Before or After Mobile Planetarium Sessions


NASA in mobile planetarium -The official NASA website – European Space Agency – BBC science of space

Roscosmos in Mobile Planetarium Physics space topic – BBC KS2 Space education resources – BBC KS1 Earth and Space resources – UK Space Agency – Tim Peaks Journey to the ISS – Videos and games about the solar system – Up to date news on astronomy – Great site on space exploration

ESA Mobile planetarium – ROSCOSMOS is a Russian Space State Corporation – Full information guide to astronomy

space-facts.comSpace facts out of this world

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